Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



If we view a given shuffle of a deck of cards as a permutation, then repeatedly applying this same shuffle will eventually return the deck to its original order. In general, how many steps will that take? What happens in the case of so-called perfect shuffles? What type of shuffle will require the greatest number of applications before restoring the original deck? This talk will address those questions and provide a brief history of the work of Edmund Landau on the maximal order of a permutation in the symmetric group on n objects. It will also note some recent progress in refining his results



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